DNA Testing is a means to identify the genetics of or makeup of a person or a being from the blood sample. Blood is made up of many particles, one of them is DNA which determines the genetic makeup of the person. The key to DNA testing is knowing where to look in the billions of letters of genetic code to find the genetic markers that will identify the important similarities or differences between people.
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WHAT IS DNA?
DNA is a molecule which is used for DNA Testing. DNA carries a person’s genetic code and is responsible for all the traits of that person, from eye color to the personality. Every part of the person’s body, ranging from minute cells to bigger organs like the heart and also skin and bones carry a complete set of DNA. 99.9% DNA will be similar of two people, the o.1% which is left is used for DNA Testing which differentiates one from another. Only twins have same DNA makeup.
WHAT IS DNA TESTING USED FOR?
DNA Testing or genetic testing is a very powerful tool used to determine many aspects of people. It has many practical applications. It is majorly used in forensic science. Listed below are the uses of DNA Testing.
Parental or Genetic Testing: This is used to test whether a person is biologically a parent to a child. It is basically to test whether a certain person is a father to a child or not. This is basically used if the mother had extramarital affairs and thee father doubts his paternity towards his child.
Genetic Disorder Testing: This is used to test whether the unborn child in the fetus of the mother has any birth or disorder defect or an abnormality. This is useful to check any birth defects of the child.
Carrier Testing: This is used to determine whether parents has a certain genetic disorder which can be possibly passed on to their children. The parents might not have the symptoms associated with the disorder.
Forensic Investigation: DNA is the most important factor in forensic investigation. It helps to identify the criminals and suspects in the crime scene investigation. The DNA at a crime scene can come from blood cells, sperm cells, or other body cells such as hair or saliva. The forensic teams use special tests to increase the amount of DNA and then check the possible suspects.
Ancestry Testing: This is widely used to find the ancestors or relatives of people. DNA from different individuals can be compared to check the relation. Also it can be used to locate the ancestors.
History Testing: This is also widely used used to determine the historical characteristics of different people and groups of people. The ancient graves and bones are rigged out and checked for their DNA to check the lifestyles of the historical civilizations and people. The information can used to create historical knowledge and can be kept in museums.
HOW ARE DNA TESTS CARRIED OUT?
Since all cells in the body contain the very same DNA, tests can be taken from anyplace in the body, including skin, hair follicles, blood and other natural liquids. A criminological researcher may be requested that look at DNA from skin cells found underneath the fingernails of an assault casualty, with the DNA from a blood test taken from a potential suspect. As a matter of first importance, the DNA is separated from the phones and a large number of duplicates are made, utilizing a strategy called ‘polymerase chain response’, or PCR. PCR utilizes a normally happening compound to duplicate a particular extend of DNA again and again. Having loads of DNA makes the hereditary code less demanding to break down. The DNA atoms are then part at specific areas to separate them into known “lumps” and the code at those particular focuses is investigated to make a DNA unique mark. The fingerprints from the two distinct specimens are then contrasted with check whether they coordinate.
ARE DNA TESTS ACCURATE?
The precision of DNA tests has huge ramifications. DNA tests are some of the time the main confirmation to demonstrate that a suspect was included in a wrongdoing, or free somebody who has been wrongly sentenced. It is anything but difficult to discern whether DNA from two organic specimens does not coordinate. In any case, a match doesn’t make you absolutely sure that the two examples originate from a similar individual. There is dependably a little possibility that two distinct individuals’ hereditary markers could be the same, particularly in the event that they are connected. To diminish the shot of mistake, researchers test more than one hereditary marker. The more indistinguishable markers there are in two examples, the more exact the test.